जाह्नवी संस्कृत जर्नल

 

हेमन्तशरदसंयुक्तांकः

Issue-4th , Vol-I, Date-30.10.2010, Year- 1, Place- Atlanta

 

Publisher

BIPIN KUMAR JHA, IIT , BOMBAY

 

अनुक्रमणिका

प्रस्फुटम् ·

सम्पादकीयम्, Dr. Sadanand Jha

प्रकाशकीयम् , Bipin Kumar Jha

साहित्यानुरागः

1.     SECONDARY SCHOOLS’ STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS SANSKRIT LANGUAGE  Dr. Satishprakash S. Shukla

2.     वेदाङ्ग में व्याकरण की उपादेयता, निधि वेदरत्न(शोधच्छात्रा)

3.     वैदिकग्रन्थानां परिचयः राज किशोर मिश्रः

4.     भारतीयसंस्कृतदर्शनवाङ्मयस्य संक्षिप्तपरिचयः, डॉ0 त्रिलोक झा

5.     वैदिकवाये ज्योतिषविषयककालतत्त्वविवेचनम् दिनेशः

6.     न्याय दर्शन में प्रमाण डा देवानन्द शुक्ल

7.     Historical background of Trik Philosophy Bipin Kumar Jha

8.     COSMOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ‘NY¶YA²VAIƒE“IKA’ PHILOSOPHICAL SYSTEM Shakuntala Meena

9.     संस्कृतभाषायाः महत्त्वम् रामसेवक झा

10.           वटपत्रपुटे शिशुः, Dr. Bhav Nath Jha

11.           ब्रम्ह सत्यं जगन्मिथ्या उत्तिष्ठ जागृत वरान्निवोधत् सुमन दीक्षित

12.           प्राग्वैदिकावैदिककाले ज्योतिषस्य स्वरूपम् नीरजत्रिवेदी

13.           वास्तु स्वरूप विमर्शः डा. रामराजउपाध्यायः

14.           भारतीय काव्यशास्त्र पर शैव दर्शन का प्रभाव -योगेश शर्मा

15.           ज्योतिष के आधार पर पुराणों का काल गणना डा0 महाकान्त ठाकुर

16.           “Impact of Early Poems on the Creation of 'The Waste Land” Dr. Manoj Kumar Singh

17.           अद्यत्वे व्याकरणशास्त्रास्य उपयोगिता डॉ0 सिद्धि कुमार झा

18.           काव्य प्रस्थान विमर्शः सुमित कुमार मंडन

19.           कथानां वर्गीकरणम् --राजेश्वर पासवानः

20.           यायवरी-राहुलः ब्युटी

21.           Gender in Indian Linguistic Thought, Kuldeep Kumar

शृंखला-

1.     चिन्तनम्। (बोधकथा- दिपेश कतिरा),

2.     रक्तिमचायम् मैथिलीमूलम्-डा.शंकरदेवझा अनुसर्जनम्-नारायणदाशः,

3.     सरलव्यावहारिकसंस्कृतपाठः संदीप सिंहः


 

 

सम्पादकीयम्

 

पदाम्भोज-प्रान्त-प्रणत-हरिमाणिक्य मुकुट

स्फुटोद्यच्छुभ्रांशु-प्रमुदित चकोराक्षियुगला।

श्रियं लावण्याऽब्धि-स्मर विहित निमर्न्थन भवां।

दधाना श्रीराधा ममविविध बाधां तिरयतु।।

अये सुरभारती समुपासकाः समवेताः संस्कृतानुरागिणश्च

विश्वस्य प्रथमान्तर्जालीय संस्कृत त्रैमासिक जाह्नवी पत्रिकायाश्चतुर्थमंकं समर्प्य मोमुद्यते मे चेतः।

विदांकुर्वन्त्वेव शास्त्ररसिकाः पत्रिकायाः लोकार्पणकार्यक्रमाः विभिन्नप्रान्तेषु तिरुपति, वाराणसी, मिथिलाप्रदेशेषु सम्पन्नाः। चतुर्थांकस्य लोकार्पण कार्यक्रमोऽपि दक्षिण अमेरिका स्थित अटलाण्टानगरे डॉ0 दीनबन्धु चन्दौरा महाभागानामावासे अस्माभिः निश्चयः कृतः। यत्र मूलमुद्देश्यमिदेवास्ति यदस्मिन् संसारे जाह्नव्याः माध्यमेन सुरभारत्याः प्रचुर प्रचार-प्रसार कार्येसमे विद्वांसः दृढ़संकल्पिताः भवन्तु। इदानीमशान्ते विक्षुब्धे द्वेषाग्नि प्रदग्धेच जगति सुरभारती वाडमय सन्देश प्रसारस्य नितरामावश्यकतामनुभूयते।

साम्प्रतं जगति सर्वत्र अशान्तिः विक्षोभः आतंकः लुण्ठनम्, स्तेयम् हिंसा, अनाचारः, दुराचारः अत्याचारश्च प्रवर्तमानाः विश्वमानसं विभीषयन्ति, निरागसः बालाः युवानः वृद्धाश्च निहन्यन्ते, अबला अपह्रियन्ते गृहाणि द्हयन्ते पथि गृहेयात्रायांच जनाः आत्मानमसुरक्षितुमनुभवन्ति।

मानवीयः विश्वासः खण्डितः दृश्यते नैतिकमूल्यानि जीवनादपाकृतानि भवन्ति। धर्ममुपेक्ष्यार्थकामंच समाद्रियन्ते। एतस्यां विषम परिस्थितौ संस्कृत सुधामयोपदेशाः अतीवोपयुक्ताः सन्ति। संस्कृत वाडंमयमस्मान् शिक्षयति यथा

                        श्रूयतां धर्मसर्वस्वं श्रुत्वा चैवावधार्यताम्।

                        आत्मनः प्रतिकूलानि परेषां समाचरेत्।

                        ईशावास्यमिदं सर्वंयत् किंचित् जगत्यां जगत्।

                        तेन त्यक्तेन भुंजीथाः मागृधः कस्यस्विद्धनम्।

                        यावदभ्रियेत जठरं तावत् स्वत्वं हि देहिनाम्।

                        अधिकं योऽभि मन्येत सस्तेनो दण्डमर्हति।

 

अस्मांक महर्षयः परमात्मानं प्रार्थयन्ते स्म यदशेषं जगत् शान्तिमयं माधुर्यमयंच जायतामिति। दिविभुवि अन्तरिक्षेच सर्वत्र सुखं शान्तिं जीवने माधुर्यमानेतुं विश्वमैत्रीं विश्वबन्घुतां संस्थापयितुम् अस्मांक पत्रिकामाध्यमेन प्रयासः।

इयमन्तर्जालीय संस्कृतपत्रिका जाह्नवी ध्रुवं विश्वजनमानसं पवित्रयिष्यति प्रेमसूत्रनिवद्धं विधास्यति समुदात्त विचार जलं प्रक्षालनेन परिशोधयिष्यति दुराचार मत्याचारं दूरीकृत्य जगति सदाचारं समुज्वलं विचारं प्रकाशयिष्यतीति में द्रढीयान विश्वासः।

श्रुतिध्वनिमनोहरा मधुरसा शुभा पावनी

स्मृताऽप्यतनुतापहृत् समवगाह सौख्यावहा।

निषेव्यपदपङ्कजा सुकृतमूर्तिमान्याऽमला

समस्तजगतीतले प्रवहतादियं जाह्नवी॥

 

                                                                                                विद्वच्चरण चञ्चरीकः

                                                                       झोपाख्य सदानन्दः

लखनौरम् मधुबनी

 

                                                     

 

 


 

प्रकाशकीयम्

बिपिन कुमार झा

 

सुपत्रिकेयं जाह्नवी हेमन्तांकोऽभिधीयते।

ज्ञाप्यते कृतज्ञतां सुहृदा खलु मंगलम्॥

अस्या साहित्यं समृद्धं दर्शनं सुदर्शनम्।

अस्याः पठनं-पाठनं लोकाय सर्वफलप्रदम्।।

 

इह जगति किंचिदपि कार्यं सहयोगं बिना सम्भवति। गीतायां श्रीकृष्णः कथयति-

अधिष्ठानं तथा कर्ता करणं पृथग्विधम्।

विविधाश्च पृथक्चेष्टा दैवं चैवात्र पंचमम्॥

इह नूतनांकस्य प्रकाशने ये केचित् सहायकाः सन्ति तेषां कृते कार्तज्ञं ज्ञापयति -सुरसरस्वतीसमुपासकः

बिपिन झा

IIT Bombay, India

 


SECONDARY SCHOOLS’ STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS SANSKRIT LANGUAGE

Dr. Satishprakash S. Shukla*

Abstract

This paper deals with the study of attitudes of secondary schools’ students towards Sanskrit Language. Though Sanskrit is a Mother Language of most of the Indian languages, it has been not given so much weightage in school education as it deserves. In Gujarat, it is taught in standard eight and nine on compulsory basis but in standard ten it is placed in optional subjects’ group. This study tries to study whether attitudes of the students improves or not when they come in standard nine from standard eight. The findings of the study shows that it remains constant with the change of the standard and medium of instruction but it differs in relation to the area of the students.


 


Introduction :

So many languages and dialects are spoken in India. But it is believed that Sanskrit is mother of all Indian languages. At present it has not been given so much weightage in schools and colleges as it should be, being and Indian language. Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended three language formula to be adopted in school education and it was implemented all over the country. The commission tried to give importance to all the official Indian languages in education system.  According to that formula students, at secondary level of education, have to learn Mother Tongue, Hindi or English and any other Indian language that is not selected in first two languages. Though, in this formula Sanskrit language has become optional language, Sanskrit is taught mandatorily in standard Eight and Nine in Gujarat State’s secondary schools which are recognised by Gujarat State Secondary Education Board. It is placed in optional subjects’ group in standard Ten. In standard eight and nine four languages are taught in the schools of all medium and Snaskrit is treated as an additional language. So to know that how much seriously Sanskrit is taken by the students of standard eight and nine, the investigator decided to study the attitudes of the secondary schools students towards Sanskrit language and for that the title of the study was decided as under. 

 

Statement of the Problem:

Attitude of Secondary Schools’ Students Towards Sanskrit Language.

 

Operational Definitions of the Terms:

Attitude: The scores obtained by secondary schools’ students’ in “Attitude towards Sanskrit Language (ATSL) Scale”.

 

Variables :

1. Independent Variables : 1. Standard   : (i) Eight (ii) Nine 2. Medium  : (i) English (ii) Gujarati, 3. Area : (i) Urban (ii) Rural.

2. Dependent Variable: Attitude of secondary schools’ students towards Sanskrit language.

 

Rationale of the Study :

This study will give idea about the ATSL of students of standard eight and nine of urban and rural areas and studying in English and Gujarati Medium. This will be helpful in understanding and developing secondary schools’ students’ ATSL so that more and more students opt for Sanskrit in standard ten.       

 

Objectives of the Study :

To study secondary school students’ ATSL.

To study the effect of independent variables on secondary school students’ ATSL.

To study the effect of interaction between and among independent variables on secondary school students’ ATSL.

 

Limitations of the Study :

This study was done in Ahmedabad district only in the academic year of 2010-2011.

 

Method of the Study:

Survey method was used to know ATSL of secondary school students.

 

Population and Sample of the Study :

Population of the study consists of the students of English and Gujarati medium secondary schools of Ahmedabad district.  Stratified sampling technique was used to select the sample.


Table - 1

Sample of the Study

Standard (A)

8 (A1)

9 (A2)

Total

Area(B)

Urban (B1)

Rural (B2)

Urban (B1)

Rural (B2)

Medium(C)

Eng. (C1)

Guj. (C2)

Eng. (C1)

Guj. (C2)

Eng. (C1)

Guj. (C2)

Eng. (C1)

Guj. (C2)

N

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

400

 

Tool of the Study : 

Secondary School Students’ ATSL Scale containing 38 statements was prepared by Likert’s method. Responses to be given by the students to each statement may vary as Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Neutral (N), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD). Scoring of the statements was to be done as shown in table - 2.

Table – 2

Scoring Scheme

Type of

Statement

Response

SA

A

N

D

SD

Positive

5

4

3

2

1

Negative

1

2

3

4

5

 

Data Collection and Analysis :

Each attitude scale given to the students was evaluated according to the scoring scheme and row scores were recorded in 2 ´ 2 ´ 2 factorial table. As it was decided that Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) would be done to test the hypotheses, first of all c2 6.5910 for df = 7 obtained by Bartlet’s test of homogeneity was compared with c2 table value  at 0.05 level. It shows that homogeneity of variance is maintained. So ANOVA was done to test the hypotheses as shown in table – 3.


Table - 3

Detailed ANOVA

Source of Variation

SS

df

MSS

F

Std.

160.21

1

160.21

2.41

Area

459.045

1

459.04

6.91

Medium

34.45

1

34.45

0.52

Std. X Area

174.85

1

174.85

2.63

Std. X Medium

49.00

1

49.00

0.74

Area X Medium

26.65

1

26.65

0.40

Std. X Area X Medium

202.25

1

202.25

3.05

Within Treatment

12748.56

192

66.40

 

Total

13855.01

199

 

 

 

Study of Null Hypotheses :

F ratio 2.41 of Standard was less than 3.89 required at 0.05 level of significance. So the null hypothesis that “There will be no significant difference between mean ATSL scores of the students of standard eight and nine.” was not rejected.

 

F ratio 6.91 of Area was more than 6.76 required at 0.01 level of significance. So the null hypothesis that “There will be no significant difference between mean ATSL scores of the students of Urban and Rural Areas.” was rejected.

 

F ratio 0.52 of Medium was less than 3.89 required at 0.05 level of significance. So the null hypothesis that “There will be no significant difference between mean ATSL scores of English and Gujarati Medium Students” was not rejected.

 

F ratio 2.63 of Std. X Area was less than 3.89 required at 0.05 level of significance. So the null hypothesis that “There will be no significant effect of interaction between Standard and Area on ATSL scores of the Students” was not rejected.

 

F ratio 0.74 of Std. X Medium was less than 3.89 required at 0.05 level of significance. So the null hypothesis that “There will be no significant effect of interaction between Standard and Medium on mean ATSL scores of the Students” was not rejected.

 

F ratio 0.40 of Area X Medium was less than 3.89 required at 0.05 level of significance. So the null hypothesis that “There will be no significant effect of interaction between Area and Medium on mean ATSL scores of the Students” was not rejected.

 

F ratio 3.05 of Std. X Area X Medium was less than 3.89 required at 0.05 level of significance. So the null hypothesis that “There will be no significant effect of interaction between Standard, Area and Medium on mean ATSL scores of the Students” was not rejected.

 

Findings :

Students of standard eight and nine have the same ATSL.

ATSL of Urban Area students is more positive than ATSL of Rural Area students.

English and Gujarati medium students have the same ATSL.

Interaction between Standard and Area, Standard and Medium, Area and Medium and Standard, Medium and Area do not affect ATSL the students of standard eight and nine.

 

Implications of the Study :

Since the study says that as the students are promoted to standard nine from standard eight their ATSL remains unchanged, it is a duty of the teachers to make the students take more interest in Sanskrit Language as they are promoted in higher standard. On the other side, when we can make our students learn foreign language like English, why our students cannot learn Sanskrit. The government should provide some incentives to the students who opt for Sanskrit in standard ten. If we Indians do not take care of Sanskrit, who else will bother for its development? Now it is high time to take some sincere actions make it compulsory in secondary education up to standard ten. Teacher should organize co-curricular activities based on Sanskrit Language and the students should be encouraged to take part in such activities.  The school administration and the education department also have to look forward for making Sanskrit Language teaching more extensive in rural areas.

 

References:

Asthana, Bipin, (2009) Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology & Education. Agara : Agrawal Publications.

Best, John W. and Khan James V. (1995). Research in Education (Seventh Edition).  New Delhi : Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.

Shukla, S. S. (2010). Educational Psychology (Guj.). Agra : Agarwal Publications.

Turney, B and George, Robb (1971). Research in Education An Introduction. , Illinois : The Dryden Press Inc.


 

 

वेदाङ्ग में व्याकरण की उपादेयता

 

निधि